16th Tennessee Volunteer
Infantry Regiment
1862

        Coosaw River (Port Royal Ferry), 1st January.  At 1400 the Regiment were ordered up to support  at Gardner's Corner arriving about nightfall, the Confederate troops had fallen back to here and the Regiment were put into line in front of Gardner's Corner.
        At dawn of the 2nd with no Federal attack the Regiment were sent to reconnoiter, with the Regiment advancing on either side of the causeway.  Not finding the enemy the whole force retired 'about four miles 'to a point where the Mackay's Point Road intersected with the Port Royal Road and formed line of battle.'
   
   
  On the 3rd they still stayed where they were awaiting the enemy but after three or four days were ordered to return to their main camps.
        On the 6th some of the Regiment went out to investigate the area between their camp and the Coosawhatchie River.
        On the 7th some of the Regiment marched to Page's Point 'for coastal guard duty',  with the weather good 'E' Company began to construction a fort at Rocky Point.
          A detail was sent to Mackay's 'upper dwelling'  on the 8th to repel a landing, which failed to materializes, while others were bombarded at Mackay's Point from 1300 until 1700.  Continued to build the fort and on the 29th took possession of some artillery pieces.  (They were also engaged in building fortifications at Stoney Point Fort, this continued at least until the 27th.)
        The 9 February saw Federal troops attempt to land but pickets drove them off.  And on the 19th they advanced and fired on the pickets.     
        During their time in South Carolina the Regiment was divided into detachments at different points, with the Federal fleet sailing up and down the coast threatening landings, the Regiment made many 'long, hurried marches through the heavy sand to oppose them.'  And from 7th until the about the 14 March the the individual Companies of the Regiment did picket duty not only at Page's Point but also at Old Jenkins Church, Confederate Hill, Mckey's Point, Frasher's Point.
       
On the 14 March, at least some of, the Regiment went to the railway depot and on the 15th went to Grahamsville, 20 miles west of Pocotaligo.
  Here they camped one mile outside the town and were 'quartered in snug cabins and fared sumptuously.'  In one of these cabins, called the 'Ballroom', 'Uncle Sam McCorkle would mount the stage with his fiddle, and all who could dance had a good time.'  Here some of the men re-enlisted but formed a cavalry company.
       
The 20 March saw Federal troops landed at Bluffton and on the morning 21st the Regiment ordered to engage them.  They set off early but on arrival found the enemy had withdraw, having marched 24 miles.  Ordered to return to Grahamsville some of the men completed the 48 mile round trip before midnight but as the men had been told to return under their own steam some of the troops took advantage and failed to return for three days.
        From the 24th until the 29th the Regiment were involved in Company drill all morning and by Battalion in the evening. On the 30th one of the  companies were again guarding Graham's Neck.
        1st April with Federal troops landed at Pages Point and and burned a house.  With this the Regiment quickly received orders to move,  cooked two days worth of rations, then order was cancelled.  
        The 2nd, 3rd and 4th the ' men drilled all day, by Company and Battalion.'
       
The 6th saw them spend the day in washing and cleaning of their weapons and the evening saw a dress parade.  But by the 8th some were detailed for picket duty at Mackey's Point.
        Ordered to Corinth, Mississippi, on the 10th, that 'sickly, malaria spot fit only for alligators and snakes', many were 'up cooking all night the boys all hollowing and hooping.'
   
 
    They left Grahams Neck early for the train depot where they left at 1100 for Grahamsville.  On their arrival there they heard that a bridge was washed away on the Savannah Road so had to turn back and went by way of Charleston where they arrived at 0400 (0800) on the 12th.
   
     Charleston was left about 1000 for Augusta, GA at 2200 where they arrived at 0300.(On this stage of the journey an Irishman of the Regiment poked his head out of a boxcar door and was promptly knocked out into the swamp.  All presumed him dead but he arrived on the next train.)  But only the next day at 0830 they left for Atlanta arriving some time after 2000.
   
     On 14 April they left Atlanta at 0400 on the Chattanooga Railroad go 60 miles and reverse back to Marietta, arriving at 1700.    Daylight found them at Dalton, on the 15th.  Here they were ordered to return to Atlanta, left at 0800 and arrived there sometime 1700- 1900.
        (One party of troops) On the 16th their train ran off the track in the morning at Newman, or Newnan, smashing nine box cars, killing one man and wounding 25 others.  The 17 saw them arrive at West Point by 1600.  Here they changed trains for the Alabama Rail Road and arrived in Montgomery, AL, on the 18th at 1500.  Here they boarded the steamer 'Jeff Davis'  and at 1800 left for Mobile. They arrived at Mobile at 1400 on the 21st.
        (Another party of troops) The 18th saw them leave Celma about 0800 travelling all day 'making good speed night coming on we all fell asleep day light found us in three mils off Mobile.'  Here they take to the Alabama River boarding the Southern Republic.  The 19th saw them arrive at Mobile. AL by 1000. Here the men were allowed to do limited sight seeing while awaiting transportation.
        Departed for Corinth on the 20th, by rail, and arrives on the 23rd at 0100.   They stayed aboard the box cars until morning when they moved out and set up camp near town in sight of Corinth.
       (
By this complicated route, and using different accounts, they joined the Army of Tennessee, under P.G.T. Beauregard.  Here they remained part of Donelson's Brigade, Benjamin Cheatam's Division, Polk's Corps.  Hardee's Corps was on the right in front of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, Braxton Bragg's Corps in the center, and the Corps across the Mobile and Ohio Railroad.)
          On the 24th they had Dress Parade and with the 25th 'rainy and very disagreeable' nothing was done And on the 26th saw then have a Regimental inspection.  With the
28th seeing heavy skirmishing!  On the 30th they moved from their camp 'east of Corinth to a more agreeable place about three miles north of town.'
        Siege of Corinth, 30 April - 30 May.  Some on the Regiment move to guard the ford at Cypress Creek on the 1st May.  The 2nd sees The Regiment move back 1/2 mile in the direction of Corinth with the Cypress Creek contingent rejoining them.
        On the 3rd all the Regiment are sent out onto the Purdy Road on picket duty, about 1 1/2 miles away.  They are relieved on the 8th when they marched back to camp.
        On the 8th May, while stationed at Corinth, the Regiment had it's enlistment extended, much to the dissatisfaction of many, and was re-organized, re-electing Colonel Savage commander.   Due to the reorganized they reelected their officers although 'this was much against our feeling as we did not like to be compelled to do anything of the kind. We wished to return home when the present expected battle was fought and reenlist again as it suited us though we was not allowed that privilege but few of our company voted.'
   
     The 9th saw them again of to the rifle pits at 0400 and returned at 1800. The 10th saw them practicing skirmish drill.  And the 11th saw more elections to replace those who refused to accept the positions that they had been elected to.
        The 11th saw them again practicing skirmish drill it also lsaw 'great activity throughout the army. Five days rations issued and three cooked.'  A Federal attack was expected as they were seen to be moving forwards.
        At 0100 on the 13th saw then sent to the rifle pits three miles north of Corinth.  Here they stayed until 1100 on the 14th.  Once again they were sent of on picket duty at 0800 on the morning of the 16th and returned at 0800 on the 17th (possibly the 19th) they were visited by a board of examiners who arrived to inspect the newly elected officers of the Regiment.
        Again on the 18th and once more rushed to the trenches at daylight and stayed there 'with the weather very dry and water very very scarce', and returned about 1100.  With the 19th sawing them sent out on picket in the afternoon, about 1700, with false alarms all the time, staying there through the 20th.
        The 21st saw the Regiment receive orders they would be moving against the Federals the following morning, they were relieved at 1700.
   
     They fell in early ready to march on the 22nd moved of at sunrise and took position at the trenches. They marched off crossing a railroad about half a mile from the entrenchments loaded 'then proceeded about half a mile into a wheat field, and fell into the fence corners.'  Here they remained from 0900 until 1500 when ordered to fall back, due to no attack on the extreme right, they returned to their trenches and remain during that night.
   
     Due to heavy skirmishing at the front the Regiment
moved of about 1000 and 'marched about four miles double quick a good portion of the way' to the trenches, on the 23rd. Here the Regiment's pickets were engaged heavily into the evening, losing one man killed and others wounded, then they returned to camp.
   
     The 24th saw the Regiment move to the trenches in 1600, then returned to camp after having 'a very dull day indeed', as was the 25th when they moved out at 1500 and returned about 1700.
   
     The 26th saw them move to Chamber's House and engage in skirmishing, especially those with 'long shooting guns', which continued into the 27th.
   
     The 28th saw a Federal attack on the left about 1000 north of Corinth, at Bridge Creek, this was stopped.  With this a counterattack was thrown in in which the Regiment participated of which a member stated that 'bullets and grape (were) in among us pretty thick.'  The attack lasted until 1500 with the loss of  three men killed a few wounded with the Regiment.  In the end 'the Federals dug up so close that at places we could throw  a stone into their entrenchments.'  Relieved in the evening they returned to camp.
   
     On the 29th all their 'camp gear' was loaded and withdrew to the rear.  They went into the trenches when at 1600.  Ordered out of the works at about sundown.  And at 2200 they joined the withdrawal 'marched all night, and late into the morning' .  Every member was ordered to cheer as the trains arrived to cover the evacuation and make the Federal forces think that reinforcements were arriving.  The 'Division marched up near Corinth, when our Regiment turned abruptly to the right and marched through a deserted country.'
   
     The 30th found them about 5 miles from Corinth crossing Smith's Bridge over the Tuscumbia River at 0600. They now destroyed the bridge and felled trees to block the road, this was completed about 0800, before resting in the swamp all the rest of the day and the following one.
   
     During Corinth they had suffered an unknown number of casualties.
   
     In May the Brigade consisted of the 2nd, 8th, 15th, 16th and 154th Tennessee Infantry Regiments, and Carnes' Tennessee Battery. By June 15, 1862, the 154th had been replaced by the 51st Tennessee. By June 30, the 2nd was no longer shown as part of the brigade.
   
     The day of 1st June saw them on picket duty along the river bank before setting off about 1600 when they marched all night in the direction of Okalona, at one time repulsing Federal scouts.  They traveled about 20 miles 'in almost famishing condition, without making any halt.'
   
     On 2nd they set of at 0500 and continued the march through heavy rains but about 1000 they went into battle line and marched towards a reported enemy position to find the information incorrect.  They now continued another four or five miles until nearly nightfall having crossed Clear Creek they stopped, but had only covered 10 miles. Here they drew the first rations for many days 'tough beef but no bread.'
        They now moved off on the 3rd at about 0800 going just three miles before stopping some three miles to the west of Baldwin Station.
        They had a quiet day on the 4th but on the 5th they were sent two miles north to Twenty Mile Creek on picket duty, where they spent all day and until 1600 on the 6th when they returned to their previous camp near Baldwin Station.
   
     On the 7th they moved out at about 1330 and marched eight miles in the direction of Tupelo, MS, 'the heat and dust was almost intolerable.'  The following day they were up before daybreak and marched eight or ten miles and camped near 'Satitatigo' (this could only be Saltillo which is 9 miles from Tupelo) railroad station, staying here on the 9th.
        They set of at daylight on the 10th reaching Tupelo about 1400 after marching about 15 miles here then crossed the railroad and marched north four or six miles before pitching tents on Town Creek.
        On the 11th and 12th they do nothing but the 13th sees them doing skirmish drill, the 14th to the 23rd sees them doing Company drill in the morning and Battalion drill in the afternoon.
        In the morning of the 25th the remainder of the Regiment was reviewed by Colonel Savage and in the afternoon by General Polk but 'I think our Regiment made a poor show.'   They now again drill over the next few days, with the 15th seeing the Companies being re-lettered.
        Between the 24th and 28th June different Companies march to Bear Creek on picket duty.  And on the 30th they participated in a grand review of the army.
        On the 1st July orders were read out to the Army that Braxton Bragg had taken command of the Army.
        All is quiet over the next few days except for some drill, and some of the Companies doing picket duty at Bear Creek, and on the 9th Brigade drill.  The 10th was Regimental inspection.
        The 11th 'There was a man preached in our reg. to night. His name was Lane. He was a plane man allso a solger. His surment was very good'.  With the 14th spent improving camp hygiene
   
     The 15th saw the Regiment having the Conscript Laws read to them after dress parade, with quite a number released on the 16th.
        The 22nd saw the Regiment march 4 miles to Tupelo where they boarded a train for Mobile, leaving at 0900 where they arrive about 2100 on the 23rd, camping at Shenan Depot.  Most leave Mobile on the boats 'Senator and Virginia.'
       
On the 24th the remainder of the Regiment leave at 1400 on the steamer 'Dawrence' for Montgomery Station where they boarded a train for Montgomery itself.  Here the first party arrive at 0900 on the 25th, and depart for Atlanta at 1500.  They reach West Point at 2200 and leave at 2300.  Arriving at Atlanta at 0500 on the 26th.
        The 27th sees the rear party leaving Montgomery after dark for West Point, distance 187 miles, where they arrive sometime in the night.  Here they stay until 1700 the next day before setting off again, passing through Lagrange before dark, and arriving in Atlanta some time after dark.
        The advance party
arrived in Chattanooga around 0400, on the 27th, and march to their camp site.  During the day 'volunteers (are asked for) to increase the number of men in Carnes’ Battery, and a large number of men of the Sixteenth respond.'
        The rear party leave, for Atlanta on the 29th, about 0700 for Chattanooga, 138 miles away, where they arrive about 1700.  They now march some 16 mile from there and they camped to the east of the town, at the western base of Missionary Ridge.
        From the 4 August the Regiment start to drill regularly and on the 5th moves their campsite about a mile and a half from Chattanooga where on the 7th they clear a new parade ground.
        The 8th sees a dress parade and they do the same again on the 14th.
   
     While at Chattanooga many of the men were visited by their families, who brought food, 'many good meals and desserts are prepared for and consumed by the men in camp', clothing and other necessities but on the 10th they leave the camps.
   
     On the 16th they march off and about 0800 are crossing the Tennessee River at Chattanooga in a ferry boat between 1200 and 1500.  They then marched about 3 miles from the river and camped.  When the
Regiment was ordered 'to cross the river ....such a yell as went up that he never heard before- it might have been heard for miles!'
        The 17th saw them move about four miles and do picket duty on the Chattanooga-McMinnville road, at a place known as Stringer's.
        While staying in place the next day the 19th saw them leave about 1000 today marching to Dallas, 12 miles above Chattanooga, where the camped in the woods one mile from Harrison's Ferry.
        The 20th saw them doing nothing but the 21st drilling but 'our Company officers cannot drill in the skirmish drill at all and do not try to learn it.'  
         The Friday of 22nd saw them awakened early, about 0400, and warned they would be setting off early, but didn't leave till 0800. They marched, with the Regiment in the rear of most of the Division, on the Washington Road for about eight or ten miles and camped at Blue Springs, by Wallace Chapel.
        From the 23rd 24th nothing much happened but '
a very flowery sermon preached' both morning and evening on the 24th.
        The 25th, 26th and 27th see the Regiment drilling and on picket duty but
the 28th saw them on the march at 0500 where they went to Sale Creek and camped.
        With the 29th and 30th seeing nothing but more drill in the morning but
set out on a march of eight miles on the 30th.
   
     On the 31st they were roused about 0230, and set of at 0300, I Company was detailed to guard the wagon train, crossing Walling's (Walden's) Ridge, the Cumberland Mountains, covering a distance of about 16 miles and camped in Sequatchy Valley, about 4 miles from Pikeville.  While here volunteers were recruited from within the Regiments ranks for the artillery, with whom they served the rest if the war.
   
    
1st September saw them setting of about 0400 and marching in the Sequatchy Valley to Pikeville.  From here they set off at 1800 up the mountain, 'it is about 9 miles long and very rough we were tired out when we reached the summit.'  Here they rested for a short time before continuing on down the mountain to Cane Creek where they arrived between 0700 and 0800, and camped for the day having marched about 30 miles over the last 26-7 hours.
        Set off at 0800 on the 3rd and reached Sparta by 1400 after a march of 11 miles.  When there they marched two miles on the Gainsboro Road and camped arriving 'all tired and completely exhausted' Awaiting them were
'women and children on the roads to greet their loved ones' with food etc.
        While here 'some of the men chose to search for ‘good old Tennessee applejack’' and the 4th saw picket duty picket duty about two mile south of Sparta and 'the camps full of citizens, a great day for rejoicing and feasting in the 16th.'
        On the 5th the '
citizens are thick in camps came in to see their friends and relations.'
        On the 6th they set off at 0700 and marched north for 17 miles on the road  to Gainesboro traveling through Brookers (Bunkers) Hill and doing about 17 miles before camping at Knee Branch.
        The 7th saw them set off at 0500 and they reached Gainsboro at 1500 they now marched two miles west and camped on the south side of the Cumberland River.
        On the 8th they didn't start till about 0100 and then crossed the Cumberland River by wading then on up Jinnys? (Jenning's) Creek towards Thompkinsville before camping about 1800, having covered about nine miles. There was a continual visit from relations.
   
     The 9th saw them up at 0300 and marching up the creek and had them advancing through Bardstown and on into Kentucky where they camped one mile south of Tompkinsville having covered about 21 miles.
        Left to sleep in on the 10th they only provided some guards for the Divisions wagon train but set off from Tomkinsville about 1300 on the 11th, marching on the Louisville road, but only traveled 11 miles before camping.
        They set of on the 12th in the morning pretty early arriving at Glasgow a little before dark and camped near the town on the Bowling Green road.
        With nothing happening on the 13th and only moving camp a short distance on the 14th but the 15th saw them on the move of at 1200 marching through Glasgow and out onto the Louisville Pike road where they marched until about 2200 (0000), some 12 to 15 miles, before stopping.
        Siege of Munfordville (Battle of Green River), 14-7 September.  Here 'about 4,500 Yankees had repulsed some of our cavalry' so a brief siege followed, with the garrison, under John T. Wilder, surrendering after two days on the 17th. The 14th saw the Regiment move one mile before camping and on the 15th they marched up the road towards Mumfordville.
        On the 16th they marched at daybreak on up the Pike about 2 miles before turning off, crossing the river, and marching  near 15? miles in a great circuit so as to get in the rear of the Federal camps at Woodsfordville, near Mumfordville, on the Green River.  Arriving in the vicinity of Mumfordville about 2100 the Brigade was involved in a friendly fire incident that saw one killed and 8 others wounded.
        The 17th saw them sleeping until daybreak
before moving up about 1300 in the direction of Louiville, but were ordred back after four miles, they are with the Division in reserve.
        On the 18th they left at 0900 and marched up the railway to in the direction of Louisville for about 6 miles and camped at Bacon Creek.
        The 19th saw them start early and when they reached the Pike they turned up the road back towards Mumfordsville, camping near the depot there.
        Roused early on the morning of the 20th and prepared for a march but don't start till late, 1600, when they march out about one mile from the depot  and stop. They now marched back to the depot where they remained until about 2000 when they set off and marched to Loudonsville/Red Mill Town (not Louisville) some 25 miles away arriving about 0200.
        Left Loudonsville about sunrise on the 21st marched up the railroad traveling east for about 15 miles, passed through Hogdenville and camped 2 miles outside of it.
        Marched about about 21 miles, on the 22nd, passing through New Haven  where 'the streets were lined with ladies cheering us on' carried on another 10 miles and camped on an old Federal encampment on the railroad.
        On the 23rd they set off about 1700 passed through Bardstown a little before dark were they took the Lexington road and went about 5 or 6 miles down the Springfield Pike and camped.
        Staying in camp from the 24 to 28th nothing happened except on the 25th 'the ladies in this section (who) seem to be very patriotic. Many of them came through our camps in their carriages a'waving their handkerchiefs and Confederate flags.'
        1 October and the Brigade moved about 16 miles in the evening camped staying there until about 1700, on the 3rd.  They now marched out by their old camps covering about 6 miles and camped.
   
     On the 4th they were roused at 0400 by marching through Fredericksburg and Springfield here they camped for the night about four miles from town, having covered about 14 miles.
        The 5th saw them leave their camps pretty early in the morning.  They passed through Perryville  and camped about four miles from Danville.
        The 6th they left about sunrise marching by way of Perryville to Danville  turned north on the Louisville road on arrival at Harrodsburg, about nine miles north of Danville, they camped.
        On the morning of the 7th they marched, at 1600 (1700 or 2000), they set out the 12 miles back to Perryville.   On arrival the Division is placed on the left of the Corps along a ridge behind Doctors Creek but with Bragg's arrival he orders it on a two mile march to the extreme right where they arrived about midnight there 'our Division was drawn up in battle line and there slept upon our arms till near daylight' at the 'east and rear of that village.'

        Perryville (Chaplin Hills), 8 October.  From early in the morning until 1200 the Regiment was in line of battle in the dry bed of Chaplain Creek, its right resting on the road that leads to Harrodsburg.  At 1200 they were ordered to march down Chaplain Creek. (The Regiment ended on the extreme right of the Division which now made the extreme right of of the whole Army.)
        About 1400 the Division is ordered to take a ridge held by William R. Terrill's Brigade, James S. Jackson's Division. They set off  'as if on dress parade' then double forwards nearly one mile across fields until they crossed Doctors Creek.  Here they removed all surplus equipment, knapsacks, blanket rolls etc.  They now moved forwards the first 600 yards through a small wood and across Wilson's Creek, reforming in a depression about 300 yards from the enemy who are concealed in a wood and supported by artillery at both ends.
        They now set off, with the 15th Tennessee on their left, to engage the enemy to their front this was a seven or eight gun battery, under Charles C. Parsons, at the extreme left of the wood. The whole battle line was expected to move forwards together 'but some of the boys seemingly anxious to close in on the enemy raised the yell & rushed forward which caused our regiment to get far in advance of our main line.'   The Regiment came under a 'murderous fire upon them with musketry and artillery from right, left and center. The ranks of the 16th Regiment were moved down at a fearful rate' and were thrown back.  They now rallied and tried a second time but 'there was a battery on our left that was giving us grape and canister and the bullets were singing around us,' again they are stopped.  It is about this time Colonel Savage was hit by a minie ball in the leg and hit by the wooden end of a canister round, as well as having his horse shot from beneath him.
   
     A. P. Stewart's Brigade now came up and formed on the left supporting the 15th Tennessee which relieved of the severe crossfire from the left.  With the Federal movement to the Brigade's right a heavy force was now massed in front, and on the right of the Regiment.  The Federal line bent around the right flank of the Regiment, near an old log cabin, and they proceeded to poor in musketry and artillery fire into that flank.  The Regiment held its ground for half an hour when George Maney's Brigade came up and formed on it's right they started forwards again and this time 'we went over the fence, driving the enemy before us, capturing the cannon. We continued running them, killing them as they ran. Their dead and wounded lay thick behind the fence and over the field.'
        Here it was found that they had killed Brigadier James S. General Jackson, (its possible that he had been killed by Maney's Brigade), 'he was standing on some part of a cannon with his hat in his hand, urging his men to put it to us.  Our men demanded his surrender but he would not notice a word they said and in the conflict some one shot him dead.'
        With this advance the Federal troops fall back to their second line some 300 yards back comprising John C. Starkweather's Brigade, and David C. Stone's and Asahel K. Bush's batteries, these they engaged before, at about 1700, they were, together with the rest of the Brigade, pulled back and entered into reserve for 30 minutes.
        Late in the day, as the sun was setting, they were once again sent forwards but ground to a halt due to the high casualties, exhaustion and darkness coming on.  They now occupied the ground they were on for the night 'taking care of the wounded; the enemy as well as our own comrades.... the field presented a most horrible spectacle indeed.'
        The Regiment suffered 199 casualties including Savage who was wounded twice, and had his horse shot from under him during the battle.  Savage 'when he saw the terrible execution among his men, he dropped down at the foot of a tree and cried like a child."
       
General Bragg issued a general order authorizing 'the corps of Cheatham’s Division, which made the gallant and desperate charge resulting in the capture of three of the enemy’s batteries, will, in addition to the name, place the cross-cannon inverted' on there battle flags.
         Before dawn on the 9th the Army set off southwards with Cheatham ordering the men of his Brigade to all carry two muskets, although many were disguarded on route. They marched through Harrodsburg and halted late that night near Bryantstown. During this retreat the Division was to be the rear guard and as such were heavily engaged in skirmishing with the advancing Federal forces.
        On the 10th a strong Federal reconnaissance found the Army 'in line of battle' before they marched two to three miles to Bryantsville, very near their old camp Camp Dick Robinson.
        On the 11th they are held here as a reserve, and to guard the wagon train.
        The 12th saw them leave about 0800 and march through Bryantsville for about 11 miles when they 'struck the Pike' went about eight miles and camped.
   
     The 13th saw them set out early and after about 4 miles and 'arrived at the Crab Orchard 12 miles from Lancaster' here they take the Cumberland Gap Road.  Taking a 'dirt road' they carry on until a little before sunset, and camp, after traveling about 16 miles.
        The 14th saw them on the march through Camp Dick Robinson, Lancaster and on in the direction of Cumberland Gap.  Resting late that night, near Dick Nailer's but were up early on the 15th when they marched of at 0300(0800) traveled about 31 miles and camped on the north bank of Rockcastle River.
        Once again on the 16th they were up early and set off early, at 0400,  they marched until they had passed south of Wildcat Creek, having covered in total about five miles before the Division returned to the creek to hold back the close pursuit of the Federal forces.  Here they remained all night.
        On the 17th the marched off at 0500 'very hungry and no rations' covering about 17 miles when they came upon their their provision wagons where they drew a small ration of breadThey then carried on passing the town of London, about 1100, and continued on about six miles towards Barboursville where they camped by a  'little muddy creek.'
        With the Federal forces stopping their pursuit the march on the 18th didn't start until 1100-1200 and didn't stop until about 2300. They had covered about 18 miles and had reached Barboursville, on the Cumberland River.
        The 19th saw them set off at 0700-0800 moving along the river bank crossing at Cumberland Ford! 'the river is so small here that we crossed it with our shoes on and without getting our feet wet.'  Covering 18 miles before camping.
        On the 20 October they set off before sunrise and reached two miles into Cumberland Gap by 1300 when they camped.
        The 21st saw them cover only three miles before camping by the Powell (Pearl or Purnell's) River,and were issued quarter rations.
        Once again the 22nd saw them set off at daylight covering about 20 miles having passed Tazwell (Gazwell), 'a small place 12 miles from the gap,' and crossing the Clinch River before camping, 'those walking had to wade.'
        23rd they were off at daylight passed through Ma(y)nardsville headed south for three miles before camping at the Owler Farm, having covered 13 miles 'over very rough roads.'
        Off at daylight on the 24th when after covering 13 (17) miles they camped five miles from Knoxville.
        During the 25-27th they remained where they were the weather was poor, on the 26th it snowed all day with up to five inches on the night.
        On the evening of the 28th they took up 'quarters in the Crutchfield House' it also saw men sent home to procure winter clothing as none had been forthcoming from the Government.
        On the 29th the Division moved to Knoxville at 1400.  The left here for Chattanooga, by train, later that day, at 1800?  After traveling all night they arrived at Chattanooga about 1100, on the 30th.  After waiting 4 1/2 hours boarded another train for Bridgport (Shell Mount), AL, which they arrived at at 2200.   Here they remained until morning.
        On the 31st with the railroad bridge over the Tennessee River not complete 'the men had to carry baggage 400 yards to the ferry, and repeat the same on the far side.'  They then waited until 1700 for a train, taking it for Tullahoma and arriving there at 2200.
   
     (This 200 mile retreat had been a dreadful affair as many of the troops had no shoes and their clothing hung in shreds.  Supplies were scarce and the men survived on parched corn and during this time more than 15,000 men were struck down with typhoid, scurvy, dysentery and pneumonia.)
        The 1 November saw them move outside of  Tullahoma and near the graveyard they set up camp, about one quarter of a mile west of town.
        While here 'both officers and men in Donaldson's brigade (requested) to be allowed to visit their homes, the great majority of whom were near them, and had not been permitted to return since their enlistment in the service.'   And from the 5th leave was granted for small groups, by Company.  Some regularly visited home.
        Somewhere about this time target practice was started so that the best marksmen in the army could be found.  J. D. Phillips, Company A, 16th Tennessee, won, and the prize a Whitworth rifle.
        Here they remained until the  22nd when they set out, with the Brigade in the lead, at 1000 crossed the Little Duck River and arrived at Manchester at sunset here they camped for the night.
        The 23rd they set off from Manchester at 1100 and camped two miles north of Beech Grove and camped on Garretson's Fork.
        On the 24th they were on the march this time at 0800 and arrived at Murfreesboro at 1600 and continued for one mile down the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad before camping on the 'margin of a little creek.'
        The 26th and the Brigade crossed the railroad and moved closer to town, near the Nashville Pike,  before camping, staying here into the 4 December. During the next few days they were again visited by family and friends.
        The 5 December saw the Brigade march out at 1100, through a snow storm, on the way to Lavergne, where they arrived just as night fell.  The Regiment was sent out in front of the main command.  They halted near a small field surrounded by a rail fence and got roaring fires going.  
        On the 6th they set out at 1000 marched three miles, halted until sunset, then returned to the camp of the evening before.
        The 7th they set off at 1200 and marched to Murfreesboro arriving after sunset, having marched through snow storms.
        The now stayed here from the 8th until 26th with Dress Parade on the 9th and on the 13 December the Army of Tennessee was reviewed by President Davis 'It was a truly imposing scene.'
   
     The 27th saw them set off at 1300 when the advanced with the Army occupying positions two miles north of Murfreesboro.
        On the 28th the Brigade are in reserve, along with the Division, they form line of battle stack arms at 0900 and wait.  They are positioned with two of the Companies across the railway lines and are on the brow of a hill, some 300 yards from the 'White House', owned by a Mrs Jones's.  Here they stay under occasional shelling.
        At dawn on the 29th they moved across the Stones River taking positions immediately west of the river and parallel with it.  Here the men laid down in line with just the occasional shell whistling overhead to disturb them. With Polk's Corps on the right once again the Regiment are positioned as the most right hand unit in the Army.
        The 30th saw the Brigade remain in reserve in the cold rain until nightfall when the moved into the skirmish line replacing Chalmer's Brigade.  At 0400 they were relieved and retired to the reserve positions located on the hill west of the river
       
Murfreesboro (Stone's River), 31 December-3 January.  On the 31th the Brigade moved forwards at 1000 until it reached the line from which the attack had started and here they awaited for orders.  They had only just arrived when Chalmer's Brigade retired and they were ordered forwards 'under a shower of shot and shell of almost every description,' from half a dozen batteries massed on a low ridge along the Nashville Turnpike, the artillery being obscured by trees at the Confederate position.  They now advanced against a thick woods known as 'Round Forest' or 'Hells Half Acre' defended by Hazen's Brigade.
        As the neared the Cowan house Colonel Savages was frightened by a shell and he dismounted and he led the attack on foot. On arrival at the house the Regiment with three Companies of the 51st went to the right through corn stalks and a cotton patch extending to the river on the right
engage a battery and infantry stationed in the woods only 150 yards to their front here they 'left dead upon the spot where they halted dressed in perfect line of battle.'  The two Companies on the right advance through a corn-field and finally at close range opened fire.

        Eight Companies on the left advanced between the railroad and the turnpike in front of the Cowan house.   They attacked a battery and the Federal infantry in the woods at a distance of less than 150 yards.
A furious battle now ensued between the Regiment, along with other parts of the left wing that could, against Hazen’s and Wagner’s brigades supporting these batteries. The 39th North Carolina came up on the right and joined the battle line until they were forced back.
        The enemy now retreated, but the Sixteenth did not pursue as the Companies on the right advanced through a stalk-field to the edge of a cotton patch when two batteries of artillery and a heavy line of infantry appeared.  With these Federal forces advancing on their right the Regiment fell back.  To deceive the Federals as to their true strength the Regiment now fought as skirmishers.  Part of Blyth's Mississippi Regiment and three Companies of the 51st Tennessee advanced and stopped the flanking manoeuvre. They held their position until about 1300 when first Jackson’s Brigade formed on their left and several minutes later Adams’ Brigade arrived and relieved them.
       
When this Brigade is forced back the Regiment retired with it but reform along with those of the 51st, and again move forwards to near a burnt out gin-house!  Here they stayed the rest of the day.  (Polk's report on the fighting before the Regiment was withdrawn stated 'could not advance and would not retire. Their colonel, with characteristic bravery and tenacity, deployed what was left of his command as skirmishers and held his position for three hours.')
        After the day’s fighting Cheatham formed his Division in a double line of infantry with the Brigade on the left of the second line, they were concealed in a cedar brake, south and west of the Round Forest.
        (A Federal soldier later wrote of the Brigade at Murfreesboro 'there were no finer troops in the Confederate Army.'